**The IF function is helpful in** **"customizing" the result of your logical test.**

## Logical Test

A logical test is the starting point for comparing 2 values or formulas.

In this article, we have presented many situations where a logical test is necessary.

But a logical test returns only TRUE or FALSE or 0 and 1 with this trick. So to customize your result, you must write your test in an IF function.

## The IF function

The IF function analyzes a test and returns a custom result in the case when the test is TRUE and another result when the test is FALSE.

The IF function is built with three arguments

- The logical test
- The result if the test is TRUE
- The result if the test is FALSE

=IF(test, the test is TRUE, the test is FALSE)

## Example: Check the invoices

We want to check if the money received by your company is the same as the value of the invoices. **Everything looks correct here but let's have a closer look **🧐.

Let's do a test to check if the amount is the same for each row.

### Does the amount of the invoice equal the amount paid?

The test to compare the two amounts is simple to create. We have to compare if the value in column B equals the amount in column C. The test is:

=B2=C2

And when you copy this test to the other cells, you have this result.

- When the test is TRUE, it's because the amount is the same in both cells
- When the test is FALSE, the amount is not equal

### Customize the result with a text

**Leave TRUE or FALSE is not user-friendly** (indeed). So we will customize** the result** of the test. This is where the **IF function will help us**.

- The first argument, the same test
- The second argument, the word "OK"
- The third argument, the word "Wrong amount"

=IF(B2=C2,"OK","Wrong amount")

### Optional: Reverse the test

There is not only one way to write a test.

If you prefer to test if the amount **between the 2 cells is different (symbol <>),** you must change the order of the result accordingly.

=IF(B2<>C2,"Wrong amount","OK")

## Why does the function IF return FALSE?

But, we don't need to write a message when it's "Ok" to have too much information in our document. Let's remove the third argument, then.

=IF(B2<>C2,"Wrong amount")

## How to return a result "empty"?

The mistake in the previous step it's because the IF function has no indication when the result is FALSE. **We have forgotten the 3rd argument of the function** 😱😱😱

If you want to return an empty result with the test FALSE, you must fill the third parameter with **"" (2 double quotes without space between)**.

=IF(B2<>C2,"Wrong amount","")

## Return the Gap between the amounts

To finish, we can **enhance** our formula. Instead of writing "Wrong amount," we prefer to **display the difference between the amount received and the amount of the invoice** 🤩🤩🤩

The formula to return the difference it's this simple function (B2-C2). So, we can write the IF function like this now.

=IF(B2<>C2,C2-B2,"")

NOW it's easy to analyze the result. In column D, we have the difference only for the case when the two values are not equal. That's what we want 😉😃

19/02/2020 @ 14:36

I am just begining learner from uganda.Please kindly assist me in excel.I need your support

15/09/2019 @ 16:56

Thank you for this excellent teaching site. Is one of the most complete and clear.

16/09/2019 @ 16:11

Thanks ☺

21/07/2019 @ 00:34

Do you have these exercises anywhere in an excel file that we can download to do the exercises

23/07/2019 @ 07:08

No, they are all copyrighted

06/08/2018 @ 23:25

Very nice explanation. My students and sometimes myself has a difficult time with functions. Do you have any practice lessons I can share with my students?

11/01/2018 @ 11:50

Grading of students in class according to their average