# Mixed References

## Mixed reference

A mixed reference is a reference that is fixed only on part of the reference:

• either the row
• or the column

Before showing you an example of a calculation using mixed references, we will detail the use of the \$ symbol in a reference.

An absolute reference has two \$. There is one for the rows and one for the columns.

But which dollar does what? 🤔🤨🙄

In fact it's very simple, just look the position of the \$

• If the \$ is on the left of the letter it means you lock the column
• If the \$ is on the left of the row number it means you lock the row

Press the key stroke F4 multiple times to change the position of the \$.

## Multiplication table

To illustrate the use of a mixed reference, we will construct a multiplication table.

The idea here is to create a single formula and copy it for the rest of the document. This will save us writing the 99 other formulas 😉😉

We want to stay always on the headers of our table so we will write the formula as follows

=\$B4*C\$3

1. Start by copying cell C4 (Ctrl + C)
2. Then select all other cells
3. Finally, paste the formula (Ctrl + V)

The multiplication table is now correct for every single cell.

We have created only one formula and copied it for the 99 other cells. How productive 👍😍😎

## Tips to know where to insert the \$?

If creating a formula with mixed references is difficult for you at the first glance, use this trick to know where to put the \$. 💡

Repeat the previous year and this time write 3 or 4 formulas without any \$.

2. Now, display the formulas of your document by activating the menu Formulas>Show Formulas

3. Now look carefully at the formulas. 🧐🧐🧐 You notice that for all formulas you have:

• always the column B
• and also always the row 3

So it is easy to know where to put the \$.

• It's before the column B
• And before the row 3

And then, you copy-paste this formula to the rest of your document. With only 1 formula, you are able to fill the 100 cells 😉